Pals com un bosc: La construcció naval xinesa des de la Guerra de Zheng fins a la Guerra de l’Opi (c. 1644-1839)

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Ian M. Miller https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6641-1556
Jason E. Maltz

Keywords

juncs, construcció naval, Xina

Resum

Els velers xinesos, sovint anomenats "juncs", eren una tecnologia flexible que economitzava materials, clau per al floriment militar i comercial de la Xina Qing (c. 1644-1912) fins a la Guerra de l'Opi (1839-42). Durant els períodes de conflicte, els constructors navals van incorporar nous dissenys per maximitzar la velocitat, la maniobrabilitat i la potència de foc. Durant els períodes de pau, van respondre a les restriccions reguladores i les limitacions en el subministrament de fusta. La fusta principal, l'avet de la Xina (Cunninghamia lanceolata), es va mantenir àmpliament disponible gràcies a les abundats plantacions. No obstant això, la construcció naval va exercir una forta pressió sobre les espècies arbòries de creixement més lent, i la demanda de fusta va afavorir la colonització del sud-oest i Taiwan. La principal resposta del govern a l'escassetat regional i a l'augment dels preus de la fusta va ser l'economització, mentre que molts constructors navals privats van traslladar les seves operacions al sud-est asiàtic. La derrota catastròfica del vaixell de vapor britànic Nemisis va marcar el final del domini militar dels juncs, tot i que van continuar sent importants comercialment durant un segle més.

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